The 2019 National Academy of Science, Engineering and Medicine Dietary Reference Intakes (DRI) for Sodium (Na + ) and Potassium (K + ) Report concluded there remains insufficient evidence to establish a K + DRI. This study tested the hypothesis that reduced Na + and increased K + excretion will positively associate with lower blood pressure in salt sensitive (SS) and salt resistant (SR) participants in the Dietary Approaches to Stop Hypertension Sodium Trial (DASH–Sodium). Via the NHLBI BioLINCC we accessed the DASH-Sodium dataset for data on systolic blood pressure (SBP), 24-h urinary Na + and K + excretion at screening (regular patient diet; N = 186, SS N = 222 SR) and post DASH diet (N = 71 SS, N = 119 SR). The relationships between SBP, urinary Na + and K + excretion, and Na + /K + ratio were assessed via linear regression. At screening elevated urinary Na + excretion positively associated with SBP in SS (1 g increase in urinary Na + excretion = +1 0 ± 0.4 mmHg) but not SR participants, and urinary K + excretion of <1 g K + /day was associated with higher SBP in SS and SR participants. Urinary K + excretion ?1 g/day, or a decreases in urinary Na + /K + ratio, was not associated with lower SBP. Post the DASH–sodium diet intervention, SBP was reduced in SS and SR participants. However, no correlation was observed between reduced SBP and urinary K + excretion or the urinary Na + /K + ratio irrespective of the salt sensitivity of blood pressure. Our data support the DRI recommendation not to establish a K + DRI and suggest further evidence is required https://datingranking.net/pl/koko-app-recenzja/ to support a reduced Na + /K + ratio to lower SBP.
Blood circulation pressure, the most common low-communicable problem around the world, stands for a significant globally personal ailment. In accordance with the 2017 Western Cardiovascular system Relationship (AHA) guidance, the brand new frequency from blood pressure among us grownups try projected getting 46% ; at the same time,
Connection of urinary sodium and potassium excretion that have systolic blood pressure regarding Fat reduction Solutions to Prevent Blood circulation pressure Sodium Demo
50% away from hypertensive everyone is projected become salt painful and sensitive (SS) . As the listed because of the National Heart for Persistent Disease Cures and you may Wellness Promotion declaration
90% of American people consume an excessive amount of weightloss salt (Na + ), with an average every day application exceeding 3400 mg in the adult All of us males, a regard nearly three times the latest each and every day consumption needed by AHA in addition to National Academy out-of Science, Engineering, and Treatments Losing weight Reference Consumption (DRI) . Since continuously dietary Na + consumption, which can push the newest salt sensitivity off blood circulation pressure while increasing blood pressure risk, global weightloss Na + intake is actually a community health chance. The new effect out of weightloss Na + consumption into the blood pressure levels could have been investigated from inside the numerous dietary intervention examples creating proof one to smaller losing weight salt consumption for the controlled setup contributes to decreases in blood circulation pressure [six,7,8]. Then, meta-analyses has actually coordinated losing weight Na + restrict that have decreases in the blood circulation pressure suggesting there was a medical benefit in normotensive and you can hypertensive some body regardless of the salt sensitiveness out-of blood circulation pressure [9, 10].
Recent evidence suggests the salt sensitivity of blood pressure may be modulated, in part, by dietary potassium (K + ) intake. Increasing dietary K + intake appears to counteract the effects of dietary Na + intake on increasing blood pressure [11,12,13]. Despite several studies that have documented blood pressure lowering effects of increasing K + intake, the 2019 National Academy of Science, Engineering, and Medicine DRI for sodium and potassium Report did not establish a DRI for K + . This report concluded that more evidence is required to support a DRI of K + with particular reference to a lack of K + dose-response trials limiting the evidence to establish a K + DRI . Several studies have reported that the urinary Na + :K + ratio has a stronger association with blood pressure than Na + or K + independently [14, 15]. Largely based on these data, a urinary Na + to K + molar ratio of <1 has been recommended [16, 17] as a beneficial target to improve long-term blood pressure control. Given the high global dietary Na + intake this would necessitate dietary, or other means, of K + supplementation-for which a DRI has not been established . A leading dietary intervention study was the Dietary Approaches to Stop Hypertension 2 Trial (DASH-Sodium) conducted between 1997 and 2002 . The DASH-Sodium trial was a multicenter, randomized clinical trial that examined the impact of three levels dietary Na + intake in combination with either a control or DASH diet (rich in fruits, vegetables, and low-fat dairy products, and reduced in total fat) on blood pressure. This study demonstrated substantial effects of dietary Na + reduction and the DASH diet on reducing blood pressure, with more significant blood pressure lowering effects with the combination of a DASH diet plus dietary Na + reduction than dietary Na + restriction alone in individuals with higher than optimal blood pressure . Given that the DASH diet intervention elevated dietary K + intake by increasing dietary intake of fruits and vegetables in combination with modifying daily dietary Na + intake, examining the potential interaction between dietary Na + and K + intake on blood pressure in the DASH trial will provide valuable insight into the potential influence of dietary K + on blood pressure.